Time-resolved X-ray diffraction
Heating rates of tens of degrees per second or higher are not unusual in microwave heating. The use of high energy synchrotron radiation and of fast X-ray detectors is required for in situ microwave heating X-ray powder diffraction studies.
Pioneering in situ microwave heating experiments using synchrotron radiation are performed since late 2006 at the Swiss Light Source on various powder specimens. We follow the evolution of constituent phases in different nanomaterials with sub-second time resolution. The high-temperature time-resolved powder diffraction experiments provide information on chemical reactions, phase transformation sequences, microstructural evolution and kinetics during the exposure of the materials to microwaves. The in situ TRXRD synchrotron radiation experiments are performed at the Materials Science beamline MS X04SA at the SLS.
Stir, M., Ishizaki, K., Vaucher, S. and Nicula, R. Mechanism and kinetics of the reduction of magnetite to iron during heating in a microwave E-field maximum. J. Appl. Phys. 105, Article number 124901 (4 pp.) (2009). DOI:10.1063/1.3148264
Vaucher, S., Stir, M., Ishizaki, K., Catala-Civera, J.-M. & Nicula, R. Reactive synthesis of Ti-Al intermetallics during microwave heating in an E-field maximum. Thermochimica Acta 522 (2011) pp 151-154. DOI:10.1016/j.tca.2010.11.026